During this time there were groups questioning Rome more openly.3 “To the angel of the church in Sardis write:
These are the words of him who holds the seven spirits of God and the seven stars. I know your deeds; you have a reputation of being alive, but you are dead. 2 Wake up! Strengthen what remains and is about to die, for I have found your deeds unfinished in the sight of my God. 3 Remember, therefore, what you have received and heard; hold it fast, and repent. But if you do not wake up, I will come like a thief, and you will not know at what time I will come to you.
4 Yet you have a few people in Sardis who have not soiled their clothes. They will walk with me, dressed in white, for they are worthy. 5 The one who is victorious will, like them, be dressed in white. I will never blot out the name of that person from the book of life, but will acknowledge that name before my Father and his angels. 6 Whoever has ears, let them hear what the Spirit says to the churches.
There were breaks with Rome, in example by England.
There was also the exploration, discovery and colonization of islands and the Americas.
And, of course, there was the Protestant Reformation triggered by Martin Luthor.
But these breaks did not nor were intended to restore Biblical teachings completely. They maintained their own hierarchies and doctrines, which were heavily adopt from the RCC.
At this time, there were groups wanting to go much further in reforms. They heavily found their own places to live and even hide.